Sixth UNESCO/IOC-ODC Training Course on Ocean Dynamics and Multi-Scales Interaction
During 5-16 September 2016, the UNESCO/IOC-ODC Sixth Training Course on Ocean Dynamics and Multi-Scales Interaction was successfully conducted in Qingdao, China. This training course invited 7 world famous professors from USA and China. There are 37 trainees from 16 countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ecuador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, Sudan, Thailand, Tunisia, Vietnam, and China) attended this training course. Based on the successful experience of previous training courses, the activities including the trainee report, group discussion and reports were continued to promote the active exchanges and cooperation among trainees. Beside these activities, more practice courses were tried in this training course and it performed very successfully. The practice courses were carried out after each lecture and trainees were guided by professors to complete these practices. Through these activities, our trainees have learnt useful knowledge. Trainees were actively involved in these activities which made the whole process rich and colorful, and a solid friendship had been built among them which made the further cooperation become possible. Finally, the trainees were issued certifications by ODC center and three best trainees were selected. This training course much enhanced the scientific understanding of trainees on ocean dynamics and multi-scale interaction. The international influence of the State Oceanic Administration has been further improved.

Group Photo
1.Opening Ceremony
On September 5, 2016, the opening ceremony of UNESCO/IOC-ODC Sixth Training Course was held in the meeting room 302 at the third floor of the Administration Building in the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), SOA, China. It was chaired by Mr. Yafeng YANG from International Cooperation Center of FIO. On behalf of FIO and UNESCO/IOC-ODC center, Prof. Fangli Qiao, the Director of UNESCO/IOC-ODC center, gave a welcome remark. On behalf of IOC, Dr. Somkiat Khokiattiwong, Chairperson of IOC/WESTPAC, gave an opening remark. They all showed their welcome to trainees and hoped they could study hard and learn more useful knowledge to improve themselves. As the secretary of ODC center, Dr. Xunqiang Yin from FIO introduced the previous training courses and the arrangement of the current training course.
2.Training Lectures
During September 5-9, 2016, Prof. Dongping Wang from Stony Brook University provided lectures on basic knowledge of ocean dynamics in each morning. These lectures have covered the most basic topics on ocean dynamics including surface momentum and heat flux, surface and bottom mixed layer, shallow water equation, tidal channel, Kelvin wave, 2-layered model, geostrophic, Ekman transport and coastal upwelling. In order to help the trainees to master the lectures provided in the morning, some lab courses for practice have been arranged in the afternoon. These lab courses contained particle trajectories (ODE), 1D-model and Ekman layer, harmonic analysis and tidal prediction (TOPIX) and 2D model and tides. The trainees were guided by Dr. Xunqiang Yin to complete the practice. At last, Prof. Dongping Wang made comments on the completion of all the trainees.
On September 12, 2016, Prof. Fangli Qiao from FIO provided a lecture on the interaction of wave-tide-circulation and application in upwelling system of coastal areas. Prof. Fangli Qiao explained the advanced technology and theory of wave-tide-circulation interaction and coupling in the ocean. Trainees showed great interests in the interaction of physical processes and a lot of details had been discussed during this lecture. Through this lecture, the view of trainees on ocean dynamics has been broadened. 
During September 13-14, 2016, Prof. Quanan Zheng from University of Maryland gave a 2-day lecture on Rossby/Kelvin waves and meso-scale eddies from Deep Ocean to marginal seas. He explained the penetration of Rossby waves/eddies through the Kuroshio and the Luzon Strait based on the horizontal structure of eddies and cruise observations. The relationship between eddies and equatorial waves was analyzed through numerical analysis. In the afternoon of September 14, a lab practice was guided by Dr. Lingling Xie from Guangdong Ocean University.
On September 15, 2016, Prof. Dejun Dai from FIO presented a lecture on the background, laboratory experiments and in situ observations of Surface Wave-induced mixing. After the introduction of the background, Prof. Dai demonstrated the laboratory methods, means of in situ observations and methods of related data analysis. This lecture has greatly enriched the scientific understanding of the ocean dynamics in small scale.
In the morning of September 16, Prof. Dejun Dai and Dr. Hongyu Ma invited the trainees to visit Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical Modeling and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology. They introduced the construction of this laboratory and demonstrated a laboratory experiment on interaction between wave and turbulence. In the afternoon of September 16, Dr. Hongyu Ma led the trainees to analyze the data from laboratory experiment and in situ observations to help them master the methods of data analysis on the ocean dynamics in small scales.
3.Other Activities
(1) Trainee Report
During the training course, 6 times trainee reports were held and chaired by the group leaders from different groups. As required by the ODC center, each trainee provided an oral presentation to introduce their research work related to the topic of this training course. If they are quite young in this field, their studies or some related works of his/her affiliations were also welcomed to introduce. Through this kind of reports, trainees have known each other quickly and found some common points in research for discussion. All the trainees became more active than usual and some interesting questions were moved to their group discussions for a deep understanding. Since the requirements of the trainee reports have been announced at an earlier time when applying for this training course, many professional reports have been given in this year. The activities of trainee reports have promoted the understanding of each other and increased the trainee’s enthusiasm to grasp new knowledge from the training course.
 (2) Group Discussion and Report
Trainees were divided into 6 groups with a group leader and a secretary and had group discussions elected by themselves. There were twice group discussions, one was in the afternoon of September 9, and the other one was in the afternoon of September 16. All the assignments of the lectures were required to complete together during the group discussion. In each group, the levels of the group member were quite different and they tried their best to help each other to complete the homework. On the other hand, some common interests have also been discussed during the group discussion. All the trainees in each group discussed very actively and a final report was done at the end of this training course. The group discussion and reports provided more chance for the trainees to perform a first attempt to work together and some prospective cooperation in future research among them become more possible.

Group Discussion

Group Report
(3) Visiting FIO
In the afternoon of September 13, 2016, all the trainees were invited to visit First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, China. They visited 3 departments including Marine Information and Computer Center, Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical Modeling and China Ocean Sample Repository. All the trainees were highly impressed in the research activities of FIO, especially in the research achievements of physical oceanography, the developments of high performance computer systems and the great efforts in the collection and managements of the samples from the deep sea research.

4. Completion Ceremony
This training course was successfully finished with the efforts of the lecturers, ODC organization and all the trainees. The completion ceremony had been held in the evening of September 16, 2016. All the trainees, Prof. Fangli Qiao, Prof. Dongping Wang, Prof. Somkiat Khokiattiwong, Prof. Quanan Zheng, Dr. Xunqiang Yin and Dr. Lingling Xie have attended this ceremony. At the beginning, Prof. Fangli Qiao, Prof. Dongping Wang and Prof. Somkiat Khokiattiwong gave a congratulate speech. All trainees who had been successfully finished this training course were issued a certification by Prof. Fangli Qiao, Prof. Dongping Wang, Prof. Somkiat Khokiattiwong, Prof. Quanan Zheng and Dr. Lingling Xie together. And special certifications for group leaders and secretaries were given by Prof. Fangli Qiao and Dr. Xunqiang Yin to show thanks to their contribution during this training course. Three trainees, Chanthasiri Nuttida from Thailand, Phuor Ty from Cambodia and Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan from India, obtained the Best Trainee Award according to their performance during the last 2 weeks. During two weeks training course, everyone knew each other and spent a wonderful time together. This training course enhanced trainee’s scientific understanding on ocean dynamics and interaction of multi-scale processes and promoted some possible cooperation in future. 

Completion Ceremony
Best trainees: Phuor Ty from Cambodia, Chanthasiri Nuttida from Thailand and Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan from India